Competing Priorities Under Canada’s Immigration Laws

By Author: Admin | June 28, 2018

Canada’s current immigration system is meant to  protect refugees, reunite families benefit Canada’s labour market.  These goals reflect contemporary political priorities, and as such, priorities have been revised from time to time.  More recently, Canada’s immigration system has focussed on economic migrants.  Migrants that are viewed as directly unsuccessful have had their programs curtailed.  But this can have unintended ancillary effects.

business woman working on computer at modern office

Pictured: Well-lit Productive Person.

For example, nanny program that provided a pathway to caregivers shall be paused.  That program provided a path to permanent resident status in Canada.  However, it has been criticized for producing less economically successful permanent residents in Canada.  It is also a program that exposes minority women of colour to precarious low-wage employment as well as unstable family circumstances,   to the benefit of Canadian women who can  participate in higher skilled jobs in Canada.

grandparent with grandson

Economically Unproductive?

Similarly, the quota for sponsoring parents (10000 per year) is a much smaller number than economic categories of immigration despite sponsored parents often providing care for their grandchildren (allowing the children to work).  Similarly, there may be benefits to the grandparents as well as the family as a whole.

There is reticence on the part of Canada’s current government in the wake of changing US refugee policy – the intake of refugee claimants in Canada has  slightly increased  during May 2018 as compared to April 2018: May had 4995 claims as while April 4820.   This may be due to a spike in the number of unaccompanied minor children who have made refugee claims. Between Jan. 1, 2017, and June 13, 2018, a total of 212 unaccompanied minors have made inland refugee claims.  I anticipate that there will be fewer unaccompanied minor claims in Canada owing to the reversal of US policy of separating families seeking asylum and detaining small children in cages.

There are calls to suspend the Safe Third Country agreement between the USA and Canada.  I think this will fall on deaf ears.  The agreement was a hard-won concession for Canadian negotiators 15 years ago.  Given the current negotiating climate between the United States and Canada, a replacement agreement (if matters improve) is unlikely in the near future.  Furthermore  if this agreement is suspended, there would be a significant increase of refugee claimants from the United States.  This is something that the Canadian government  is trying to avoid.  Though few Canadians can point to how their lives are materially affected, the idea of a mass of asylum seekers, legitimate or not, polls extremely poorly.

That having been said, there may be valid grounds to suspend this agreement, owing to the disparate treatment of refugee claimants in the USA and Canada .  The American system is (for now)  more politicized than the Canadian system, while both Canada and the United States rely on administrative tribunals to determine if a person is a refugee, the Canadian Minister of Refugees, Citizenship and Immigration cannot direct members of the Immigration Refugee Board to interpret the law in a certain way.

In contrast, the United States Attorney General is the final word on immigration law, much like a one-man Supreme Court (except serving at the pleasure of the President).  American refugee law can be rewritten on the fly to meet the desires of whomever occupies the White House. For example, US Attorney General Jeff Sessions recently ruled  that the United States will not grant protection to those fleeing persecution by domestic or gang violence .  This was meant to stem the tide of Central American asylum seekers fleeing astronomical crime rates, especially against women.  The Canadian refugee determination system, by contrast, recognizes gender-based violence as the basis for seeking refugee protection.

In fairness, Canada reduces the number of asylum seekers it deals with in other ways: geography (most need to get on a plane to reach Canada) and visas (Canada does not let most get on the plane if they are likely to claim asylum).


CIC News June 2018

By Author: Admin | June 15, 2018

The CIC Newsletter for June 2018 has been published. Some salient points are below.

Get back to work!

Get back to work!

Portuguese youth aged 18 to 35 will soon have the opportunity to travel to Canada under the International Experience Canada (IEC) program. This program is associated with relatively developed countries; countries that are rich and safe enough that youths will want to return. The relevant question is: would a typical Portuguese visa holder in Canada stay in Canada once their permit expires? Also, how many visas will be available to Portuguese youth? The range could be as small as Greece’s numbers –around 150 visas – to as high as Australia, which has an unlimited number of visas for youth.


The universal sign of cuteness.

The universal sign of cuteness.

• The Canadian government has become more lenient on the issue of medical inadmissibility by raising the cost threshold of “excessive demand”. It’s now three times higher than the level that was in place since 2001. Similarly, the inadmissibility for those individuals (usually children) who need special education (and associated services) has been dropped. The change was likely spurred by cases where productive, telegenic, families were barred from settling in Canada due to the presence of a medically inadmissible child. Such a progressive change will benefit families with such formerly inadmissible dependents and cause some work for Canadian immigration lawyers to dry up.



• Canada has offered to take an unspecified amount of Rohinga refugees at an unspecified time, and will also work with unspecified countries to help settle a presumed tiny minority of the approximately 693,000 Rohinga refugees currently in Bangladesh, one of the worlds poorest countries. By contrast, Canada, one of the worlds richest countries, received a paltry 32000 refugee claimants from January to September 2017, an amount considered a “crisis.”

Citizenship Revocation recent update

By Author: Admin | February 27, 2018

Citizenship revocation changes


On February 5, 2018, the Canadian government changed the citizenship revocation process to add more accountability to those facing the revocation of their Canadian citizenship.  This marks a turning point as compared to the previous decision-making regime which was introduced in 2015 by the previous Conservative government.  Under the 2015 changes, only the Minister, and not the Federal Court was given authority to remove citizenship in cases of noncompliance such as lying about physical presence in Canada, concealing criminal activity, and faking identity.  With the recent change, people facing such allegations have the choice of having their matter disposed of by the Minister’s immigration department, or having their matter disposed of at the Federal Court.

Similarly, the revocation process now includes a further stage where an immigration officer can review arguments against proceeding with revocation before the matter is sent to the Federal Court. This extra step allows people facing revocation to put their best case forward to the immigration department. If the person’s facts are compelling enough, then this extra step may allow an immigration officer to cease revocation proceedings in appropriate situations.

This is a continuation of rolling back of changes that came about from the previous government’s Bill C 24.  For example, on October 11, 2017, the requirement of physical presence for four years out of six years was rolled back to three years in the last five years. Further, the requirement to have 183 days for each year of residency was also rolled back.  Further, the reinstatement of the counting of days the physical presence in Canada prior to permanent residency occurred, specifically, a half-day of physical presence being counted within the five years preceding a citizenship application.  Further, rather than the imposition of an official language requirement for those aged 14 to 64, the reinstatement of the requirement for proof of language for those aged 18 to 54 came back into effect.

It is anticipated that during 2018 a further change will occur, namely that there will be formal authority for citizenship officers to seize documents which are suspected to be fraudulent.  This would formalize a practice that already occurs during the course of processing citizenship applications supported by allegedly fraudulent documents.

Canada Law Blogs

The Permanent Residence program for live-in Caregivers is coming to an End

By Author: Admin | February 9, 2018

Permanent Residence for Foreign Caregivers to End


Picture Permanent Residence Caregiver Canada

The government recently announced the pathway to permanent residency for caregivers of children and the elderly will cease on November 2019.  Recently, there was an expression of the difficulty and delay in such caregivers getting permanent resident status through such programs. Such difficulties related to the additional requirements such as proof of language and educational achievement.

The added requirements of language and post-secondary credential stemmed from the concern that those caregivers who acquire permanent resident status end up on average receiving more taxpayer support than other Canadians after landing.  The presumption would be that the possession of language and post-secondary schooling would make the caregivers more economically mobile as permanent resident holders, and hence less of a drain on Canadian tax payers.

It is difficult to see a short-term enhancement of Canadian work prospects for caregivers who possess the more advanced language and educational credentials, given the lack of transferable work experience; either the work experience is Canadian and nanny-based, or it is foreign (from an unrecognized foreign employer) and thus met with skepticism from Canadian employers.  The more cogent source of support leading to the economic integration of such caregivers would come from the relatives of caregivers who are already in Canada.  In fact, a significant amount of foreign caregivers work for family members who already possess Canadian permanent resident or citizenship status.  The presumption that the Canadian relatives would assist their foreign caregivers in economically establishing in Canada is a reasonable one.

The greater concern is the accompanying dependents that a permanent resident caregiver can sponsor to Canada.  These often include dependent children and a spouse whose economic integration into Canada is often also characterized by difficulties owing to a lower facility in English or French and/or a lack of transferable work experience.

Such immigrants who immigrate to  Canada “at the bottom of the ladder,” are likely to financially survive assuming the economy of Canada still requires general labour.  Recently, Canada has shown a shortage in such labour.   The hope was that immigrants such as caregivers can economically make a decent life in Canada to a degree that any dependent children of such immigrants can be supported and become self-sufficient Canadians.  The end of the pathway to permanent residency for caregivers shall terminate this hope.

How to Apply for a Study permit for Canada – the logic of a study permit from outside of Canada

By Author: Arvin Afzali | August 10, 2017

How to Apply for a Study permit for Canada – the logic of a study permit from outside of Canada

Study permit from outside of Canada

This article will briefly review what is required to apply for a study permit from outside of Canada. We remind the reader that this does not necessarily apply to everyone seeing that the Canadian Immigration Law is complex and therefore this article should not be construed as Legal Advice.

In the Canadian Immigration Law context, a study permit is defined at R. 2 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, hereafter the Regulations, as “a written authorization to engage in academic, professional, vocational or other education or training in Canada that is issued by an officer to a foreign national. In General, a foreign national who wishes to study in Canada must obtain a study permit before entering Canada pursuant to R. 213 of the Regulations. There are some exemptions that allow some foreign nationals to apply at a Port of Entry or after entry into Canada. Some foreign nationals are even exempt from applying for a study permit such is the case ”  if the duration of their course or program of studies is six months or less and will be completed within the period for their stay authorized upon entry into Canada” pursuant to R. 188 (1) (c) of  the Regulations. 

This article will address foreign nationals who want to apply outside of Canada for a study permit. Pursuant to R. 216 (1) of The Regulations, an international student may be issued a study permit if upon examination by an officer it is determined that the foreign national meets the requirements of a temporary resident application as well as the requirements set out for a study permit.

A visa officer considers many factors when assessing whether or not a foreign national should be issued a study permit. At a minimum a foreign national must demonstrate five things:

  1. That they have been accepted in a designated learning institution by presenting a letter of acceptance from the institution unless they are exempt pursuant to R 219 (2) (a) of The Regulations.
  2. That they will have the financial capacity to pay their tuition as well as cover their living expenses while in Canada.
  3. That their intention to study in Canada is genuine (bona fides).
  4. That they are not inadmissible into Canada.

Despite meeting these requirements an officer might still determine that you do not meet the requirements pursuant to section 219 and 220 of the Regulations or that you will not leave Canada upon the expiry of your status therefore it is important to demonstrate all the requirements for a temporary residence application such as your travel history (although an absence of travel history is a neutral factor), ties to the home country and Canada as well as the general requirements for a study permit.

Applicants must also ensure they meet the documentation and form requirements of the Visa Office  of their country of residence which can be found here by selecting the country from which the applicant is applying form.

We have thus seen that applying for a study permit can be quite complex in some circumstances. If you would like to come and study in Canada and are uncertain as to how to proceed contact the Chaudhary Law Office, a Toronto Immigration Law Office specializing in Canadian Immigration Law.

I have a visitor Status in Canada can I apply for a work permit in Canada?

By Author: Arvin Afzali | July 31, 2017

I have a visitor Status in Canada can I apply for a work permit in Canada?


A lot of people contact us and ask us if they can apply for a work permit with their visitor visa or their visitor record.

The answer is not as straight forward seeing that there are various factor’s that must be considered such as the country of citizenship and whether or not they have a family member in Canada with status in Canada either temporary (work, study, work permit exempt, temporary resident permit, Permanent resident).

The general rule is that a foreign national must apply for a work permit before entering Canada (R. 197 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations). However, some foreign nationals may apply for a work permit when entering Canada (at the border) if the foreign national is exempt from the requirement to obtain a temporary resident visa (R. 198 (1)  of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations).  For a list of foreign nationals who are exempt from a temporary resident visa see R 190 of Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, they include:

  • citizens of Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden or Switzerland;
  • British citizens,
  • British overseas citizens who is re-admissible to the United Kingdom, or
  • Citizens of a British overseas territory who derives that citizenship through birth, descent, naturalization or registration in one of the British Overseas Territories of Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Island, Saint Helena or Turks and Caicos Islands; and
  • Nationals of the United States or a person who has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.

Foreign Nationals may not apply after entering Canada despite being exempt from the requirement of holding a temporary resident Visa (R.198 (2) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations) if they:

  • do not have a valid job offer (LMIA); or
  • if they are not from the United States or residents of Greenland or St. Pierre and Miquelon; or
  • are a foreign national who require a medical certificate and do not have said certificate; or
  • are participants in an international youth exchange program, unless they are a national or permanent resident of the United States or their application for a work permit was approved before their entry into Canada

A Foreign national may apply for a work permit in Canada pursuant to R. 199  of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations if they:

(a) hold a work permit;

(b) are working in Canada under the authority of section 186 (are work permit exempt) and are not a business visitor within the meaning of section 187;

(c) hold a study permit;

(d) hold a temporary resident permit issued under subsection 24(1) of the Act that is valid for at least six months;

(e) are a family member of a person who holds a work permit, study permit, is exempt from a work permit or hold a TRP;

(f) are in a situation described in section 206 or 207, the foreign national:

  • has made a claim for refugee protection that has been referred to the Refugee Protection Division but has not been determined; or
  • is subject to an unenforceable removal order; or
  • is a member of the spouse or common-law partner in Canada class
  • is a protected person within the meaning of subsection 95(2) of the Act;
  • has applied to become a permanent resident and the Minister has granted them an exemption under subsection 25(1), 25.1(1) or 25.2(1) of the Act; or;
  • is a family member of a person described in any of paragraphs (a) to (d).

(g) applied for a work permit before entering Canada and the application was approved in writing but they have not been issued the permit;

(h) are applying as a trader or investor, intra-company transferee or professional, as described in Section B, C or D of Annex 1603 of the Agreement, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, and their country of citizenship — being a country party to that Agreement — grants to Canadian citizens who submit a similar application within that country treatment equivalent to that accorded by Canada to citizens of that country who submit an application within Canada, including treatment in respect of an authorization for multiple entries based on a single application; or

(i) hold a written statement from the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade stating that it has no objection to the foreign national working at a foreign mission in Canada.

As you can see although there are some exemptions that allows a person to apply for a work permit in Canada in general most people have to apply from outside of Canada. The fact that a person has a visitor visa or a visitor record does not necessarily mean that they can apply for a work permit after entering Canada,

If you are contemplating coming to Canada and are unsure as to whether you have to apply for a work permit from outside of Canada or if you can apply for a work permit with your current visitor status in Canada contact the Chaudhary Law Office.

Loss of Canadian Permanent Resident Status

By Author: Arvin Afzali | July 26, 2017

Loss of Canadian Permanent Resident Status

Permanent Residence is technically not “permanent” in the sense that a person may lose their status if they don’t comply to some requirements. Section 2 (1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (Act) defines a permanent resident as “a person who has acquired permanent resident status and has not subsequently lost that status under section 46.”

Section 46 if the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act defines five ways in which a person may lose his or her permanent resident status:

  1. If they become a Citizen of Canada,
  2. if they fail to comply with the residency obligation under section 28 of the Act,
  3. if a removal order made against the person has come into force due to inadmissibility issues,
  4. if a final determination is made that they are not refugees or entitled to protection (person in need of protection, Pre Removal Risk Assessment); or
  5. They Voluntarily renounce their status (Permanent Resident Status)

We will briefly review each of these categories.

1. When you become a Citizen of Canada

Once you become a Canadian Citizen you automatically loose your permanent residence Status. As a Citizen not only do you benefit from the same rights that you did as a Permanent Resident but you also obtain additional rights as well.

2. Failure to meet the Residency Obligations


You can loose your permanent resident status if you fail to fulfill your residency obligations. Although, one is not required to remain in Canada indefinitely section 28 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act does require that a permanent resident spend 730 days out of 5 years in Canada. Therefore, a permanent resident does have to satisfy an officer when applying to renew their Permanent Resident Card or at a Port of Entry that they meet the residency obligations. To demonstrate compliance with this requirement one can submit documentation such as proof of employment, proof of enrollment at a school, bank statements, pictures and statements from friends and family as well as other documents.

There are some exemptions that allow a permanent resident who failed to remain in Canada for 730 days out of 5 years to get days spent outside of Canada counted as days spent in Canada:

  • If you were outside of Canada with a Canadian Citizen who is your spouse or common-law partner.
  • If you were employed outside of Canada on full-time basis for a Canadian Company or Government.
  • If you were outside of Canada with a Canadian Citizen who is your spouse or common-law partner who is employed full-time working for a Canadian Company or the Government of Canada.

3. Inadmissibility and Removal Orders

chaudhary law office picture of detention centerA Permanent Resident can be determined to be inadmissible in Canada on grounds of Security Reasons, human or international rights violations, Serious Criminality, Organized Criminality and Misrepresentation, Failure to Comply with the Act such as meeting the residency obligations (see section 2 above).

As a result of being determined inadmissible in Canada one can loose their Permanent Resident Status.

The process usually involves an allegation of inadmissibility to be reviewed by an officer who then decides whether or not to refer the matter to the Immigration Division of the Immigration and Refugee Board where the matter will be decided at a hearing which might or might not have a right of Appeal seeing that some grounds of inadmissibility do not have a right of Appeal such as Serious Criminality where the term of imprisonment is more than 6 months.

4. Final Determination that a Person is not a Refugee or a Person in need of Protection

Immigration-and-Refugee-Board-Of-Canada-620x290If a person’s refugee claim involved Fraud or Misrepresentation they can loose their permanent resident Status. The Minister upon discovering that there has been fraud or Misrepresentation makes an application to vacate to the Refugee Protection Board pursuant to section 109 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. If the application is allowed and the Board vacates the original decision for refugee protection this will result in the person loosing their permanent resident status in Canada.

5. Renouncing your Permanent Resident Status

A person may voluntarily renounce their Status as long as they have Status (Citizenship or PR) in another country. For more information and submitting this type of application click here.

We have seen five ways for which a person may loose their status. For more information regarding Permanent Residence status contact the Chaudhary Law Office an Immigration Law Office in Toronto, Canada.

Immigration Consultants and Ghosts in Canada

By Author: Admin | July 6, 2017

Immigration Consultants and Ghosts in Canada

Immigration Consultants and Unlicensed Consults in CanadaPhoto Credit:

Unlicensed consultants – or “ghost” consultants – cause problems to the immigration system because they tend to encourage their clients to lie on their applications. They offer to fill out forms (without talking to the client), create required documents (such as school papers), create bogus offers of employment, or fabricate marriages. Sometimes applicants are “in” on the fraud, and other times they have no idea what is going on (as far as they’re concerned, they’re just applying for a visa and this is a legitimate local businessperson). The difficulty is trying to protect the latter group from going to a ghost consultant in the first place, and punish the former group for damaging the integrity of the system.


The problem stubbornly persists. Part of this problem is a lack of investigative resources on the part of the CBSA (Canada Border Services Agency – the agency tasked with immigration enforcement). In a report to Parliament, Jennifer Lutfallah from the CBSA added that awareness campaigns about unregulated consultants are, after “criminal investigations … the only mechanism we have for enforcement.”  Thus, given the expense of such criminal investigations, Canada Border Services Agency only pursues cases where more than one case has been improperly processed by a Ghost Consultant.


The effectiveness of Awareness campaigns are perhaps analogous to the Public Service Announcements of the 1970s, which unintentionally encourage opposite behaviour. The CBSA website is vague on the phenomenon of ghosts who counsel persons to lie on an application.  In the immigration context, there is an utter lack of acknowledgement of the problem; nowhere on the CIC (or now, IRCC) website is there a reference to Ghost Consultants.  I’ve also written before that the CIC website actively encourages persons without a lawyer or consulting license to provide immigration services.


Further, IRCC often fails to differentiate between the services offered by an authorized immigration lawyer and criminals. On IRCC’s website, IRCC advises individuals on their website that “[i]f [they] follow the instructions in the application guide, [they] can complete the application form and submit it on [their] own.” This may be true for some applications, where the applicant obviously and unambiguously meets the criteria of a popular immigration program. In other cases, where the applicant’s eligibility is unclear, then the instructions will only provide enough information to be refused. And some applications, such as criminal rehabilitation,  humanitarian and compassionate (H&C) applications, or self-employed applications offer little to no instructions beyond the minimum required to be considered complete, and no information on what the actual criteria for acceptance is. The difference is that an immigration lawyer will help you present the truth of your case such that ambiguities can be adequately explained, while a Ghost Consultant will ignore it entirely and create a fictional account.


Ghost consultants rely on their victim’s combination of desire to come to Canada and ignorance of the process. Some visa seekers victimized by Ghost Consultants are retained by individuals who are too language deficient (or blamelessly ignorant) to invest in a regulated immigration consultant or a licensed Canadian Immigration Lawyer.  Others are victimized by private schools for international students; such schools have a financial incentive to market themselves as part of a pathway to permanent residency, sometimes wrongly.


One recommendation from the Parliamentary Committee includes giving an option for a candidate whose application was discovered to have been processed by a Ghost Consultant, an opportunity to retain a licensed lawyer or other representative.  Such a recommendation may protect applicants who were unaware of the distinction between a Ghost Consultant and licensed consultant.


I was the lead counsel on a matter where individuals used clerical services and were wrongfully determined to have used a ghost consultant.  In that case, significant resources were poured into an investigation that meant to punish immigration applicants rather than the individuals who were allegedly acting as Ghost Consultants.  After the expense of a successful Federal Court case, the candidates were successful; their cases shall now be reassessed by a different visa officer.


If seeking advice about applying for a visa, feel free to contact Chaudhary Law Office; we’re licensed Canadian lawyers by the Law Society of Upper Canada.

What are Removal Orders and What You Need to Know

By Author: Admin | June 28, 2017

       What are Removal Orders and What You Need to Know

What are Removal Orders and What you Need to Know

Photo Credit:

    The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) are vested with the authority to issue various Removal Orders. There are three distinct types of Removal Orders which may be issued by the (CBSA) or (IRCC). The relevant Removal Orders include; an Exclusion Order, Departure Order, and Deportation Order. It is important to understand what each order entails, including the associated rights and responsibilities of an individual who is subject to each particular Removal Order.

      An Exclusion Order typically stipulates that the relevant individual may not return to Canada for a full year. However, if the Exclusion Order is issued due to misrepresentation, the individual may not return to Canada for a period of five years. In addition, it is the responsibility of the individual who has been issued an Exclusion Order to reimburse the (CBSA) for any costs that are associated with removal from Canada. If an individual wishes to return to Canada within the relevant period of exclusion, that individual must obtain an Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC). For more information on the process of applying for an Authorization for Return to Canada please see this relevant ARC link.

    A Departure Order mandates that an individual must leave Canada. A person who is issued a Departure Order has 30 days to leave Canada in order to be eligible to return to Canada at a future date. It is important for an individual who is subject to a Departure Order to confirm their departure from Canada with the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) at the relevant port of exit. The failure to confirm the necessary departure with the (CBSA), or the failure to leave Canada within 30 days of a Departure Order taking effect will result in the issuance of a Deportation Order. In addition, an Authorization to Return to Canada (ARC) will also be required in order to return to Canada at a later date.

     A Deportation Order permanently prohibits an individual from returning to Canada. An individual who is subject to this order may not return to Canada without obtaining an Authorization for Return to Canada (ARC). An individual who wishes to apply for an (ARC) must also repay the CBSA any costs associated with their removal from Canada.

     It is possible to appeal a Removal Order with the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) in certain instances. However, once a Removal Order takes effect, it is important to leave Canada immediately. The failure to leave Canada in these circumstances may result in the issuance of a warrant for arrest by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA).

    A Refugee Claimant will typically receive a Conditional Removal Order. The Conditional Removal Order will become a valid Removal Order if the Refugee Claim is not accepted.

    For more information regarding Removal Orders please visit this link to the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) website.

If you have been issued a Removal Order and require legal assistance contact      Chaudhary Law Office.  

Canadian Sponsorship of Adopted Children and Other Relatives for Permanent Residence: A Brief Overview of the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO)

By Author: Admin | June 7, 2017

Canadian Sponsorship of Adopted Children and Other Relatives for Permanent Residence: A Brief Overview of the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO)


      The sponsorship of an adopted child or other relative can be an exciting and joyful prospect. There are many important factors to consider if you are hoping to sponsor an adopted child or other relative in Canada. The sponsorship of an adopted child or other relative is a significant commitment which entails a number of important obligations that are associated with this undertaking. A sponsor is compelled to provide necessary financial support and basic requirements for the sponsored adopted child or other relative. As the financial obligation to provide support for sponsored adopted children and other relatives is significant and binding, the government of Canada requires a sponsor to meet relevant minimum income requirements.

     The federal government of Canada issued a Federal Income Table which dictates the relevant criteria associated with the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO) for sponsors of adopted children and other relatives in provinces other than Quebec. An applicant, who is hoping to act as a sponsor must provide proof of their available income in the form of a Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) Notice of Assessment.

    The minimum required income for an applicant sponsor under the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO) criteria is $24,600 for a one-person household (consisting of the sponsor alone). The minimum required income increases relative to the size of the sponsor’s family unit. A relevant chart pertaining to the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO) from the Sponsor’s Guide for Sponsorship of Adopted Children and other relatives has been included below.

Low Income Cut-Off (LICO)  – 2017

Size of Family Unit     Minimum necessary income

1 person (the sponsor) $24,600

2 persons         $30,625

3 persons         $37,650

4 persons         $45,712

5 persons         $51,846

6 persons         $58,473

7 persons         $65,101

More than 7 persons, for each additional person, add $6,628.

    For more information it may be helpful to consult the Sponsor’s Guide (IMM 5196) for Sponsorship of adopted children and other relatives.

Sponsoring an adopted child or other relative can be a complex process. If you require assistance in creating an application for the sponsorship of an adopted child or other relative contact  Chaudhary Law Office.

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